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Book 8: Chapter 21 – Diseases Affecting Different Body Parts


  1. Asthma is the common chronic inflammatory disease. It is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Its symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

  2. Dermatitis is inflammation of the skin such as itchiness. Its symptoms vary with all different forms of the condition.

  3. Diphtheria is characterised by sore throat and low fever. It is a infectious disease spread by direct physical contact or breathing.

  4. Typhoid fever, also known as Typhoid, is a common worldwide bacterial disease.

  5. Pyorrhoea is characterised by abundant discharge of pus from the root of the teeth and gums. Poor oral hygiene is the main cause of pyorrhoea. Not brushing the teeth daily and not cleaning the mouth after intake of food give rise to infection by various types of organisms.

  6. Jaundice (also known as icterus) is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin. Jaundice is often seen in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver cancer.

  7. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.

  8. Arthritis is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints. There are over 100 different forms of arthritis. It is the most common cause of disability in the USA. More than 20 million individuals with arthritis have severe limitations in function on a daily basis.

  9. Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.

  10. Paralysis is loss of muscle function for one or more muscles. It can be accompanied by a loss of feeling (sensory loss) in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as motor. A study conducted by the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation, suggests that about 1 in 50 people have been diagnosed with paralysis.

  11. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

  12. A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the thyroid gland, which can lead to a swelling of the neck or larynx (voice box). Worldwide, over 90% cases of goitre are caused by iodine deficiency.

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