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Book 8: Chapter 20 – Pioneer Scientists of India


  1. Prafulla Chandra Ray was an Indian academician, a chemist and entrepreneur. He was the founder of Bengal Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals, India's first pharmaceutical company. He is the author of A History of Hindu Chemistry from the Earliest Times to the Middle of Sixteenth Century (1902).

  2. Maankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan is an Indian agricultural scientist. He currently serves as a Member of Parliament from Rajya Sabha and is also member of the National Advisory Council.

Swaminathan is known as the "Father of the Green Revolution in India", for his leadership and success in introducing and further developing high-yielding varieties of wheat in India.

  1. Satyendra Nath Bose was an Indian mathematician and physicist noted for his collaboration with Albert Einstein in developing a theory regarding the gaslike qualities of electromagnetic radiation. Bose never received a doctorate; the highest degree he obtained was an M. Sc. from the University of Calcutta in 1915.

  2. Salim Moizuddin Abdul Ali was an Indian ornithologist and naturalist. He is known as the "birdman of India". He was among the first Indians to conduct systematic bird surveys across India and his bird books helped develop ornithology.

  3. Dr. Jayant Vishnu Narlikar is an Indian cosmologist.He developed with Sir Fred Hoyle the conformal gravity theory, commonly known as Hoyle-Narlikar theory.

  4. Sir Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan was an Indian physicist. He was a co-discoverer of Raman scattering, for which his mentor C. V. Raman was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics. He played a significant role in the discovery of the Raman Effect.

  5. Birbal Sahni was an Indian paleobotanist (Paleobotany is a branch of paleontology that deals with plant fossils and ancient vegetation), who studied the fossils of the Indian subcontinent. He was also a geologist who took an interest in archaeology.

  6. Meghnad Saha was an Indian astrophysicist best known for his development of the Saha equation, used to describe chemical and physical conditions in stars.

  7. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam usually referred to as A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, is a renowned aerospace engineer, professor (of Aerospace engineering), and first Chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram (IIST), who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour in 1997. 

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