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Book 6: Chapter 23 – Indian Awards


  1. Bharat Ratna is translated to Jewel of India or Gem of Indiain English. The order was established by Rajendra Prasad, President of India, on 2 January 1954. The actual award is designed in the shape of a Peepul leaf and carries with the words "Bharat Ratna", inscribed in Devanagari script. The reverse side of the medal carries the state emblem and motto. The award is attached to a 2-inch-wide (51 mm) ribbon, and was designed to be worn around the recipient's neck. It is the Republic of India's highest civilian award, awarded for the highest degrees of national service.

  2. The Padma Vibhushan is the second highest civilian award in the Republic of India.  It was established on 2 January 1954. As of the end of 2012, only 288 people have thus far been awarded this honour. It ranks behind the Bharat Ratna and comes before the Padma Bhushan. 

  3. The Padma Bhushan is the third highest civilian award in the Republic of India.  It comes after the Bharat Ratna and the naltrexone 50 mg half life link naltrexone definition

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